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Geology 110N

Dept of Ocean, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences

Earth Science

Summer 2004

Laboratory 5 - Shaping Earth's Surface: Arid and Glacial Landscapes


Terms:


alpine glaciation

glacial trough

outwash plain


arete

ground moraine

paternoster lakes


cirque

hanging valley

Pleistocene Epoch


continental glaciation

horn

recessional moraine


drift

kame

stratified drift


drumlin

kettle

tarn


esker

kettle lake

terminal moraine


finger lake

moraine

till

Objectives:


2.

Describe the different types of glacial deposits and the features they compose


3.

Identify and explain the formation of the features commonly found in areas where the landforms are the result of deposition by continental ice sheets.


4.

Describe the evolution and appearance of a glaciated mountainous area.


5.

Identify and explain the formation of the features caused by alpine glaciation

Concepts:

Types of Glaciers

Alpine (Mountain) Glaciers

Continental Glaciers

Glacial Landscapes

Glacial Moraines

moraine

an accumulation of unconsolidated material deposited by glaciers. These accumulations tend to be unsorted; that is, we find many different sized particles deposited in moraines, ranging from fine silt to large boulders. The sediment and rock material in moraines also tend to have angular edges. There are many different types of moraines, and depending on the type, the appearance of moraines may vary.


end moraine

found in both alpine and continental settings, an end moraine is an accumulation of unconsolidated material deposited at the snout end of a glacier.


terminal moraine

an end moraine marking the furthest advance of a glacier

recessional moraine

an end moraine created as the glacier retreats

ground moraine

a body of glacial till deposited beneath a melting glacier. Ground moraines are often found together with end moraines.


lateral moraine

unconsolidated material deposited along the sides of an alpine glacier.


medial moraine

When two alpine glaciers flow together, their lateral moraines join, forming a medial moraine.


Erosional Features of Alpine Glaciers

glacial trough

Steep-sided, flat-bottomed valley formed by an alpine glacier. Also referred to as a U-shaped valley.

hanging valley

A shallower valley carved by a tributary glacier, that intersects a deeper, main glacial trough. After the glaciers recede, waterfalls are often found at this point of intersection.


arete

a steep-sided, sharp-edged bedrock ridge formed by two glaciers eroding away on opposite sides of the ridge.


cirque

a semicircular or amphitheater-shaped bedrock feature created as glaciers scour back into the mountain. This is where the snow and ice forming the glacier first accumulates.

col

a low spot or pass along a cirque or an arete.


horn

a pyramid-shaped mountain peak created by several glaciers eroding away at different sides of the same mountain.


Depositional Features of both Alpine and Continental Glaciers

outwash plain

a flat or gently sloping surface composed of glacio-fluvial deposits (stratified drift).


Depositional Features of Continental Glaciers

drumlin

streamlined hill created by the advance of a glacier over pre-existing till.


esker

Long-sinuous ridge formed by sediment deposition in sub-glacial streams.


kame

a mound or hill created when drift fills a hole in a glacier. When the glacier recedes the mound is left behind.


kettle

a depression caused by the melting of a stagnant block of ice that was surrounded by sediment.


Water Bodies of Glaciers

finger lake

lake formed by the accumulation of runoff in a dammed glacial trough.


kettle lake

lake formed when the water table intersects the bottom of a kettle.


paternoster lakes

a chain of lakes in a glacial valley.


tarn

a glacial lake produced by scouring


Assignment:

To be submitted as record of attendance: Exercise Questions 17, 23-31, 32, 36, 38-42


Summary and Report Page: 6, 9, 10


Sedimentary Rocks

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